Current thinking is that the human lineage split from the apes around 7 million years before present in Central Africa, remaining on the continent for at least the next 5 million years.

However, the recent discovery of remains of what has been called 'El Graeco', or Graecopithecus freybergi, indicates that the 'Out of Africa' hypothesis should be re-examined. 'El Graeco' shows that human ancestors were starting to evolve at least 200,000 years before the earliest known African hominid. Is this the 'missing link' in the binding between the Chimpanzees and modern Humans, Homo? Graecopithecus fossils have been discovered in Azmoka, Bulgaria and Pyrgos, Greece. 

At the time when Graecopithecus was roaming the eastern Mediterranean the area was open savanna, forcing apes to become upright walkers, as was the case in Africa. Graecopithecus was a member of the tribe of hominins and a direct ancestor of Homo. The oldest known African hominid, Sahelan tchadensis, is several hundred thousand years younger than G. freybergi. There was probably a two-way multiple series of movements into and out of Africa but the probability now exists that modern man and his ancestors did not just evolve on the 'Dark Continent'. 

Most pre-hominid and hominid fossils have been found in dry areas, such as Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana and Oldupai Gorge. Very few fossils have been located in moist, high rainfall habitats, they rotted and were mulched long ago. Archaeologists and palaeontologists in such locals as South East Asia and the Amazon Basin have no ancient, preserved, fossil material to work with. 

We have a feeling that pre-hominids and hominids evolved independently in Africa, Europe and possibly Asia. Even as the evidence to the contrary mounts the 'Out of Africa' theory continues to dominate. Is this perhaps political expediency and to state otherwise might be categorized as racism and denigrating Africa? 

We get closer to the truth without ever achieving the perfect understanding of everything. We may never have the full picture but we should approach 'Out of Africa' with an open mind!

Socratic paradox: 'I know one thing, that I know nothing.'